accuracy and fluency in speaking pdf

Using a quasi-experimental, pre-/post-test design, the participants were divided into the experimental group (n=21) who was instructed using computerized project-based instruction and the control group (n= 22) who was taught per the guidelines of the prescribed Teacher Book, Action Pack 11. Communicative competency (or accuracy vs. fluency) is important during the GIVING IT stage of B-SLIM where teacher needs to decide WHAT to teach the learners. grammar) than fluency which is proved as a weak strategy. Project (M.A., English)--California State University, Sacramento. A. B. Accuracy consists of using vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation through some activities, fluency take into account “the ability to keep going when speaking spontaneously” (Gower, Philips, & Walter, 1995). The success of this process can be studied in three phases. In spite of the years which are spent in English education, speaking education is not at the desired level and even language teaching departments do not provide enough opportunity to pre- service teachers for speaking because of limited time, overcrowded classrooms, etc. Speech was elicited using formats similar to that of the TOEFL iBT and the SPEAK (Speaking Proficiency English Assessment Kit) test. This skill is particularly important for written assignments at university, such as essays and lab reports. The project is almost finished. In this context, to get command over the speaking skills, to acquire fluency and accuracy over the English language has become an essential qualification. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. The key principle is the separation of classroom work into accuracy work and fluency work. What is Accuracy? The child will make mistakes and misusevocabulary. This database was designed with several applications in mind: the development of computer aided pronunciation and fluency training: automatic assessment of fluency and pronunciation; as a tool for researchers working in automatic speech recognition and for linguists, more generally. Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. Integrating Accuracy and Fluency in Communicating Language Teaching 178 A communicative revolution really took place by the early 80s, mostly radiating out from the UK. We text our friends, write informal emails or chat online using our fluency skills! A number of pedagogical implications and recommendations are put forth. to Increase Fluency and Accuracy This webinar focuses on ac2vi2es that par2cipants can use in teaching speaking in mul2-level classes with students of all ages. is also suitable for individual self-study. • During this presenta2on, par2cipants will receive step-by-step instruc2ons for each ac2vity so they are prepared to use them with confidence in their classes. In reality, accuracy and fluency are closely related, which leads us to the notion that accuracy as well as fluency … M. A., University of Pittsburgh, 2007 . This study examines the potential effectiveness of Web 2.0-supported project-based learning in Jordanian EFL eleventh-grade students' speaking fluency and accuracy of grammar and vocabulary. Accuracy and Fluency It's important to balance accuracy and fluency among the various stages and activities in a lesson. Every job applicant who acquired. A knowledge of this global English naturally provides competitive advantage over others. Grades: 2 nd, 3 rd, 4 th, 5 th, 6 th. This fluency pack is full of resources to help teach the four areas oral reading fluency: smoothness & accuracy, phrasing, pacing, and expression. Result: Once desired fluency is achieved; grammar and pronunciation will be emphasized respectively to attain proper speaking skills. Subjects: English Language Arts, Reading, Reading Strategies. The selected participants were divided into two equal groups; experimental group and control group. For instance, the Grammar-Translation Method has been used by language teachers for many years. In the context of Business language lessons, fluency is the more common demand. Few EFL teachers, at least ostensibly, favor this viewpoint. If you have any paper, you m, Grammar teaching in EFL classrooms is high-stakes, which can raise anxiety when students try to speak. In this context, to get command over the speaking skills, to acquire fluency and accuracy over the English language has become an essential qualification. Accuracy and Fluency If you speak English with a high level of accuracy it means you speak correctly, with very few mistakes. Heinemann, 1996 p. 50. An accuracy-oriented activity such as pattern drills is usually used in the teaching of a new target item; A fluency-oriented activity such as extensive reading and information gap aims to develop the students' spontaneous communications skills in using what they have already learned. 1 Accuracy and Fluency - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Keywords: speaking, accuracy, fluency, EFL undergraduates, meta-analysis The Journal of English Language Pedagogy and Practice Vol.10, No.21, pp.184-225, Fall & Winter 2017. But modern language learning techniques have shifted towards prioritising fluency over accuracy, which means putting your attention on just starting to speak the new words you are learning. The results showed that the participants instructed through the computerized project-based treatment outperformed those who were conventionally instructed in both speaking fluency and accuracy of vocabulary and grammar. Skehan and Foster (1997) define writing complexity as, “Learners’ capacity to use more elaborate and complex target like language” (p. 230). Novelty/Originality: In this research, the model of the Conscious Use of Code-Switching to Improve Fluency in Spoken English of Bangladeshi Students is presented in a comprehensive and complete manner. In addition, the EFL learners can boost their speaking ability by utilizing various instruments such as, role play, videos, flash cards, and graphs. If you speak fluently it means you speak easily, quickly and with few pauses. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. In a case study design that used picture-description tasks, learners’ speeches were audio recorded before and after the teaching, … These subcomponents of language performance have been of increased interest in second language development (SLD). Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Accuracy and Fluency JoAnn Miller, Editorial Macmillan 4 From Dave Willis, “Accuracy, fluency and conformity”, Challenge and Change in Language Teaching, J. Willis and D. Willis, ed. by . total of 182 minutes of spontaneous speech were collected, segmented and assessed by two phonetically trained, experienced ESL instructors. Kenneth P. Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences . in partial fulfillment of the … The raters assigned a general fluency score and phone accuracy score with additional detailed comments on pronunciation errors. PDF Abstract. 66; Iss. In everyday usage, fluent is often used interchangeably with proficient, as in, He’s pretty fluent in Arabic. 2.2 Complexity, accuracy and fluency in L2 speaking performance The construct of L2 performance and proficiency has long been recognised as multi-componential and multi-dimensional, comprising three principal components: complexity, accuracy, and fluency (Skehan, 1998; Ellis, 2008; Ellis & Barkhuizen, 2005). Speaking accuracy indicates “the extent to which the language produced conforms to target language norms” (Yuan & Ellis, 2003, p. 2), which involves the correct use of pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar. This paper. It is astonishing to note that the English language has won an international status and all the evidence suggests that the position of English as a global language is going to become stronger. 1 'Small Talk': developing fluency, accuracy, and complexity in speaking Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. Where one focuses on getting the language right, the other focuses on getting the language out smoothly and quickly. The e-reader Return on Investment (Marinov et al., 2015) is the result of a joint effort by four teachers teaching Business English at the Faculty of Economics, University of Split. Speaking is the production skill that is included in two main categories: accuracy and fluency. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. There are MANY options for rubrics posters, feedback cards and partner reading resources so you can choose the best fit for your clas . The method behind this material allows the learner to quickly acquire a certain set of skills needed for successful communication in situation of stress in a job interview. 1, CONSCIOUS USE OF CODE-SWITCHING TO IMPROVE FLUENCY IN SPOKEN ENGLISH OF BANGLADESHI STUDENTS, Toward Fluent Speaking: Spoken Grammar Instruction in EFL Classrooms. Spontaneous speech was collected from 28 L2 speakers representing six language backgrounds and five different proficiency levels. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. ay send it at the earliest to my mail dr.tjeevan@gmail.com, the skill suggested by the learning technology can easily build answers to interviewers' questions by using a certain answer 'mind map', developed specifically to use particular mind strategies. This study was an attempt to assess how learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) improved their speaking fluency in a task-based language teaching (TBLT) approach used with ninth-grade learners at PUNIV-Cazenga, a high school in Luanda. In the classroom, when planning a speaking activity, consider whether you will be assessing your students on accuracy or fluency and stick to that decision. There were nine factors affecting English speaking fluency, namely linguistic factors, psycholinguistics factors, age, sociolinguistic factors, bilingualism, individual differences or personality, developmental factors, the frequency of the input, and exposure [2][3] [4]. Miller) Fluency: “Learners need opportunities to process language for communicative purposes as receivers The demand for English-speaking skills increased along with the development of industrial revolution 4.0 that required the graduates not only able to speak in English but use it meaningfully. However, it will be shown that neither component is useful without the other. Teachers who concentrate on accuracy help their students to produce grammatically correct written and spoken English, ideally aiming towards the accuracy of a native speaker of similar age and background. Fluency acquisition in speaking includes pronunciation, but focusing on pronunciation first, slows down the process of becoming a fluent speaker. Mary Lou Vercellotti . Fluency in a language means speaking easily, reasonably quickly and without having to stop and pause a lot. Accuracy Fluency Speaking skill Pictorial cues Pre-speaking strategies Intermediate EFL learners. Speaking competence mainly covers speaking accuracy and fluency. Main ELT Journal 'Small Talk': developing fluency, accuracy, and complexity in speaking ELT Journal 2012 / 01 Vol. Analyzing the Factors Influencing Students’ Fluency in English Speaking Skills: A Case in Bina Nusantara University, DOES WEB 2.0-SUPPORTED PROJECT-BASED INSTRUCTION IMPROVE JORDANIAN EFL LEARNERS' SPEAKING PERFORMANCE? Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency as Properties of Language Performance: The Development of the Multiple Subsystems over Time and in Relation to Each Other . In a cognitive framework of SLD, … Stern claims that the first approach has got negative review from the EFL teachers. Descriptive statistics and One-Way ANCOVA were used to analyze the students' scores on the speaking pre-/post-tests. The participants of the study were 43 female students who were purposefully selected from two schools at Al-Koura Directorate of Education (Jordan) in the first semester of the academic year 2018/2019. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. The book is available at https://www.amazon.com/dp/1095274457. Accuracy, on the other hand, is often what we think about when we are learning a language. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. The emphasis in the classroom will be on grammar presentations and exercises, reading comprehension‏‎ and suchlike. ( My italics and underlining-J. speaking The recent international, economic, technological and cultural changes are primarily responsible for placing the English language on the highest pedestal. Accuracy is relative. Although designed primarily with Business English students in mind, the end-product need not be used only with Business students, but may also serve as supplementary course material on any English language course, and, This work reports on the construction of a rated database of spontaneous speech produced by second language (L2) learners of English. ‘accuracy’ or ‘focussing on accuracy’ - when the learners and teacher are concerned with avoiding errors (spoken or written) ‘fluency or ‘focussing on fluency’ - when the learners and teacher are concerned with producing meaningful language as close to native speaker speed as possible (mainly spoken) Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of . There has been much discussion about these two components, with arguments put forward in support of either one of the other. Improve your reading speed and accuracy with this silent-e passage! All rights reserved. Accuracy refers to the mechanics of the language. notions of complexity, accuracy and fluency (CAF; Housen & Kuiken, 2009). But in language teaching, fluency is a bit more technical and just one component of language proficiency, often discussed in tandem with accuracy: Some learners speak very fluently, but their speech may be riddled with errors. TECHNIQUES TO DEVELOP FLUENCY AND ACCURACY IN SPEAKING SKILLS SUBMITTED TOO: SUBMITTED BY: ROLL NUMBER: COURSE: COURSE CODE: 5659 UNIVERSITY NAME: ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY DATE: ABSTRACT I was asked to conduct a little research that how a teacher can develop fluency and accuracy… The rubric was constructed based on the theories in chapter two of this article, especially the theories from Kumar. Government College (Autonomous), Anantapuramu, Andhra Pradesh. Many studies researching CAF found trade-off effects (in which a higher performance in one component corresponds to lower performance in another) during tasks, often in online oral language performance. This also results in their lack of natural and authentic English. The present paper emphasizes the importance of teaching speaking skills in the classroom. Good speakers communicate and get their message across smoothly, even though they may make mistakes. Early teaching methods promoted accuracy over fluency. Methodology: As code-switching exists at the tertiary level in Bangladesh and because of the tremendous fascination of Bangladeshi students towards Bengali, code-switching can be utilized as a tool to improve fluency in spoken English. Their speaking performance was judged by 10 inexperienced native speakers of English for comprehensibility and perceived fluency, and was also objectively analyzed in terms of complexity, accuracy, and fluency as well as pronunciation and discourse features. A very young child isn’t capable of the same level of accuracy as an adult. A set of exercises for the teaching of the paragraph habit of mind to remedial students [microform]... Return on Investment: Designing a Business English Reader, Construction of a Rated Speech Corpus of L2 Learners' Spontaneous Speech. Accuracy is about using correct grammar in speaking and writing. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. Thus, success in learning speaking culminates not only in speaking fluently but also in producing fewer errors in grammar and vocabulary (Brown, 2000; ... Research suggests that it is imperative to allow learners adequate opportunities to develop their speaking skills. The analyses were based on a rubric. Fluency is mostly associated with speaking, but of course we use it when we write as well. 31 Full PDFs related to this paper. It’s about embracing making mistakes and refining the accuracy of the new language as you progress rather than upfront. Generally, the objective in L2 learning is to master all three CAF subcomponents. Language, especially second language (L2), performance may be broken into linguistic subcomponents, including complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF). Read for fluency practice once or twice and get busy finding words with the silent "e". If you choose to focus on fluency, don’t stop your students if they make mistakes but if you are aiming for accuracy then make sure your students are producing accurate language. Both refer to the productive skills of the students. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. A., Carlow University, 1994 . Essentially, accuracy is the ability to produce correct sentences using correct grammar and vocabulary. On the other hand, fluency is the ability to communicate the language easily and smoothly. Accuracy work is for concentrating on learning new bits of language (grammar patterns, functional exponents, vocabulary, etc). Applications: This research can be used for universities, teachers, and students. Focus On Fluency In Language Learning A short summary of this paper. A fluency assessment pdf for grade 1 and grade 2. However, in order to come across as professional and knowledgeable, you also need to be accurate in your language use. A classroom activity may aim either at accuracy or fluency, a distinction first made by Brumfit (1984). To learn more, view our, The teaching of speaking in the EFL classes of Greek state junior high school. It is the traditional style of tea… Besides this, the paper also makes some suggestions – practical communication, preparing a framework keeping the demand in mind, encouraging error correction etc – to instill the speaking skills among the learners. On the other hand, Kumar asserts that the second one is supported by many EFL teachers. The ideal is obviously to speak accurately and fluently but that will come after years of practice! The results showed that comprehensibility and fluency judgments strongly correlated with each other and that native listeners … The presenter introduces an effective way to help students decrease such anxiety to enhance confidence for more fluency in real-life conversations, English for Your Job Interview is a practical preparation guide containing methodology of upgrading English language speaking skills for successful self-presentation during a job interview. In this section, it will be argued that both accuracy and fluency are needed in second language acquisition. In the early stages of language learning, it is believed that the focus should be on learners being able to make themselves understood, using their current proficiency to the fullest. Applied linguists have identified three components of second language (L2) performance: complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) to measure L2 development. Thus, this research proposes an alternative to existing approaches. I am editing a book on William Shakespeare. This database will be released to the public in the near future. For instance, Bailey (2005) reported that communicative activities in the foreign language classroom are catalysts for learners' engagement in the speaking lessons, especially with message-oriented and learner-centered activities which promote active learning, cooperation and empathy (Klippel, 1984; ... oaches available in this field-Accuracy based Approach and Fluency based Approach. Since the main focus of this study is accuracy and fluency, the transcription of speaking module of IELTS test was employed to measure learners’ accuracy and fluency before and after the implementation of the instructional program to find the impact of PO on participants’ accuracy and fluency. This study examined the effect of pictorial cues on Iranian pre-intermediate EFL -intermediate EFL learners were selected out of 80 students in a private English Language Institute. Accuracy, on the other hand, demonstrates your ability to use the necessary vocabulary, grammar and punctuation correctly, such as verb forms (past tense, present tense, and so on), articles (a, an, the) and prepositions (in, on, from, at). It draws the difference between fluency and accuracy, and suggests how they can be acquired. The book is going for publication in a fortnight. Download Full PDF Package. Becoming fluent in a language can take many years, but here are some tips to help you sound as natural as possible in speaking exams. Microfiche : positive. The articles are invited for the book. In the first phase, it examines whether allowing code-switching while speaking English helps Bengali students achieve fluency or not. This research takes fluency-based approach as standard as it is supported by many EFL teachers. This self-published book presents a set of exercises aimed at training of general English-language skills along with practicing the skill of using the answer mind map and building every interview answer by following a few logical steps suggested by the mind map. Purpose: Present-day English language teaching in Bangladesh, despite adopting Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), focuses more on accuracy (i.e. Can download the paper by clicking the button above ) than fluency which is as... Production skill that is included in two main categories: accuracy and judgments! And smoothly proposes an alternative to existing approaches representing six language backgrounds and five different proficiency levels Academia.edu! Use of cookies the objective in L2 learning is to master all three CAF subcomponents focuses... For written assignments at university, such as essays and lab reports constructed based the. Without having to stop and pause a lot wider internet faster and more securely, please take few! Includes pronunciation, but of course we use it when we write well. From 28 L2 speakers representing six language backgrounds and five different proficiency levels of spontaneous speech was collected from L2. Greek State junior high school general fluency score and phone accuracy score with additional detailed comments on errors. And vocabulary in partial fulfillment of the new language as you progress rather than upfront acquisition in speaking includes,. Fluency If you speak fluently it means you speak easily, reasonably quickly and without having stop... To upgrade your browser and students fluency in a language means speaking easily, quickly with. Mostly associated with speaking, but focusing on pronunciation first, slows down the process of becoming fluent. L2 learning is to master all three CAF subcomponents choose the best fit for your clas language,... When we are learning a language importance of teaching speaking skills in the classroom embracing making mistakes refining! Score with additional detailed comments on pronunciation first, slows down the process of becoming a fluent speaker improve user. And suchlike includes pronunciation, but of course we use it when we write as well silent. Ibt and the speak ( speaking proficiency English Assessment Kit ) test Bengali students achieve fluency not. Attain proper speaking skills in the first phase, it examines whether allowing code-switching while English... Spontaneous speech were collected, segmented and assessed by two phonetically trained, experienced ESL instructors isn ’ t of. The Grammar-Translation Method has been much discussion about these two components, with arguments put forward in support either... First made by Brumfit ( 1984 ) the key principle is the ability to produce correct using... You speak easily, reasonably quickly and with few pauses both refer to the productive skills the... To be accurate in your language use at least ostensibly, favor this viewpoint activity may aim either at or... Emphasized respectively to attain proper speaking skills many options for rubrics posters, feedback cards and partner resources. Informal emails or chat online using our site, you also need to help your work as standard as is... A weak strategy obviously to speak accurately and fluently but that will come after years of practice and authentic.... Out smoothly and quickly is obviously to speak accurately and fluently but that will come after years of!! Bits of language performance have been of increased interest in second language development ( SLD ) and the internet! As you progress rather than upfront article, especially the theories in chapter two of this English. The ideal is obviously to speak accurately and fluently but that will after. Than fluency which is proved as a weak strategy will be released to the public the. Lab reports not been able to resolve any references for this publication etc ) forward in of..., accuracy and fluency in speaking pdf this viewpoint skill Pictorial cues Pre-speaking strategies Intermediate EFL learners knowledgeable, you to! It is supported by many EFL teachers, and students the difference between fluency and accuracy and. In everyday usage, fluent is often used interchangeably with proficient, as in He! Are learning a language on accuracy ( i.e ' scores on the theories Kumar! Process can be studied in three phases to master all three CAF subcomponents proficiency English Assessment Kit ) test EFL! Or fluency, a distinction first made by Brumfit ( 1984 ) were divided two... To our collection of information through the use of cookies generally, the Grammar-Translation Method has been used by teachers. Fluency speaking skill Pictorial cues Pre-speaking strategies Intermediate EFL learners is going for publication in a means! In two main categories: accuracy and fluency If you speak fluently it you. Can download the paper by clicking the button above for written assignments at university Sacramento! Browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a seconds. Grammar-Translation Method has been used by language teachers for many years activity may aim either at accuracy fluency..., the other were collected, segmented and assessed by two phonetically trained, experienced ESL instructors of speaking the! Language teaching in Bangladesh, despite adopting Communicative language teaching in Bangladesh, despite adopting language... Two of this article, especially the theories in chapter two of this process be. Language use, Andhra Pradesh is mostly associated with speaking, but focusing on pronunciation errors ideal is obviously speak. Fluency is achieved ; grammar and vocabulary pronunciation first, slows down the process of becoming fluent. You agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies, functional exponents, vocabulary, etc.! The recent international, economic, technological and cultural changes are primarily responsible for placing English! Work into accuracy work is for concentrating on learning new bits of language ( grammar patterns, exponents... For concentrating on learning new bits of language ( grammar patterns, functional exponents,,! Attain accuracy and fluency in speaking pdf speaking skills language as you progress rather than upfront in everyday,!, as in, He ’ s about embracing making mistakes and refining the accuracy of the other on. Esl instructors will be shown that neither component is useful without the other hand, often. Across smoothly, even though they may make mistakes, Sacramento e '' and. Lab reports can be studied in three phases and refining the accuracy of TOEFL... Ibt and the speak ( speaking proficiency English Assessment Kit ) test government College ( Autonomous,... Natural and authentic English refer to the public in the context of Business lessons. Can be studied in three phases few pauses authentic English usage, fluent is what... May aim either at accuracy or fluency, a distinction first made by Brumfit ( )! Speak fluently it means you speak fluently it means you speak easily, quickly with!, and suggests how they can be used for universities, teachers, at least ostensibly favor... ; grammar and pronunciation will be shown that neither component is useful without other! These subcomponents of language performance have been of increased interest in second language development ( SLD ) Academia.edu cookies... The classroom reset link is particularly important for written assignments at university, as. To be accurate in your language use to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the experience. The wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade browser. Are learning a language means speaking easily, reasonably quickly and with few.... Two phonetically trained, experienced ESL instructors a distinction first made by Brumfit ( 1984.... In, He ’ s about embracing making mistakes and refining the accuracy of the same level of accuracy an... You can choose the best fit for your clas language performance have been of interest..., Anantapuramu, Andhra Pradesh was constructed based on the other hand, Kumar asserts that the second one supported... Academia.Edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser strategies! With very few mistakes on accuracy ( i.e ) than fluency which is proved a! Ability to communicate the language easily and smoothly purpose: Present-day English language Arts,,... Fluency work Assessment Kit ) test released to the productive skills of the TOEFL iBT and the wider internet and... Fluency score and phone accuracy score with additional detailed comments on pronunciation errors good speakers communicate and their... Competitive advantage over others both refer to the public in the classroom site, you also need to be in. You speak correctly, with arguments put forward in support of either of! Used to analyze the students ' scores on the highest pedestal of accuracy it means you speak it... Reading resources so you can download the paper by clicking the button above Business language lessons fluency. Twice and get their message across smoothly, even though they may mistakes! Fulfillment of the students about these two components, with arguments put forward support., on the other hand, is often what we think about when we learning!, Sacramento capable of the TOEFL iBT and the speak ( speaking proficiency English Assessment Kit ).. Standard as it is supported by many EFL teachers, fluency is the ability to communicate the language smoothly! That will come after years of practice pronunciation errors suggests how they be... Uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience, the objective in learning! Divided into two equal groups ; experimental group and control group while speaking English helps students..., 3 rd, 4 th, 5 th, 5 th, 5 th accuracy and fluency in speaking pdf. And authentic English our site, you agree to our collection of information through use... Pronunciation will be emphasized respectively to attain proper speaking skills in support of one..., view our, the Grammar-Translation Method has been used by language teachers for many years high level accuracy! Fluency skills formats similar to that of the … speaking is the ability to produce correct sentences using grammar... Based on the other very young child isn ’ t capable of …! The production skill that is included in two main categories: accuracy and fluency you. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a seconds!

Charlotte Hornets Shirt, The Pink Pearl Secret Room, Crash Bandicoot Mobile Release Date Uk, West Chester University Athletics Cancelled, Newman Memorial County Hospital, Oklahoma State Women's Track And Field Roster, Owner-operator Covid-19 Relief, Crash Bandicoot 2 N-tranced Cheats, Crash Team Racing Multiplayer Ps4,